You can modify the meaning of any root by adding a derivational suffix. The new root+suffix compound then acts as if it were a root itself, and can be modified further by adding more derivational suffixes.
There are 137 derivational suffixes. Only some are explained here; see the dictionary for the rest.
Table 4.10. The Most Important Derivational Suffixes
-Te- is the main question word (well, question affix). This is the normal way to ask questions, other than yes-no questions. (See Sentence Modifiers for yes-no questions.) -Te- requests more information about the root it is attached to.
Example 4.26. Questions and Answers
Attepe? You+question+exist? Who are you?
Aitea ho? Unspecified+question+same surprise? Huhwhuh?
Atta tiha pa aiteua? You+agent change-location+action belief unspecified+question+goal? Why did you go?
Ouxulo eaeun pa fuaateihe fuaateta? Ouxu+of learned+change-to belief person+question+beneficiary person+question+agent? Who taught Ouxu to whom?
-Na- converts the root to mean anything other than its original meaning. -Po- converts it to mean specifically its opposite.
Example 4.27. Negation and Opposites
Pa xitnaa. Belief red+not+same. It's non-red.
Pa xitpoa. Belief red+opposite+same. It's the opposite of red (perhaps cyan).
-Hig- and -hug- act as demonstratives. If you've fallen into the snake pit, you can use them to distinguish this snake that's about to strike from that snake that's still relatively far. -Hig- is for nearby things, and should be your default choice if it doesn't matter (unlike English, where "that" is often the default choice). -Hug- is for more distant things.
-Le- is similar to "a" in "a frog can jump" or "some" in "some frogs are poisonous". It means that you're not talking about any specific object; you're making a generic statement.
Example 4.29. A Generic Statement
Uxetlexe pa laaofxu. Frog+indefinite+whole belief poison+part. Some frogs are poisonous.